5B: How to Use this Site

This site is a “on ramp” portal providing access to key science and news about herbicide use in the Midwest, and how to reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes and reproductive problems.

This website is meant to serve as an “on ramp” to the extensive knowledge base and body of scientific research on how herbicide use in the Midwest has impacted the health and development of children, and may do so in the future.

The site is set up to function much like an online book, with the content laid out in sections that flow into each other. We recommend that you first read through the Project Introduction, Section 1, then proceed to Section 2: Birth Outcomes, and so on.

Use the main navigation bar to get around the site, or use the home page to find content related to the issues you are most interested in. Check out the “Do You Know?” feature on the home page for interesting factoids from the page, and be sure to sign up for our newsletter, as new content will be added regularly.

There are several data tables and figures on the page, see the Site Map and List of Figures below for the current list. Many of the tables can be downloaded and/or printed, and can be provided as raw data in excel upon request. Contact the website manager with any questions about the site, or to request data in a format other than what is available here.

Be sure to check out the Project Bibliography where we have compiled dozens of scientific journal articles and other important references.  Bibliography items can be sorted by topic and are easily printed.  Check back often as this valuable resource will continue to grow.

Lastly, look for glossary terms that are underlined with a dashed line throughout the page.  In order to help users get the most out of our site, hovering over these keywords will pull up a window with a definition.

Site Map and List of Figures and Tables

Section 1: The Project

Section 2: Birth Outcomes

  • 2A: Six Risk Drivers
    • Figure 2A.1: Herbicide Application Window, Traditional and GE-HR Crops
    • Figure 2A.2: Number of Herbicides Applies per Acre of Corn and Soybeans, 1971-2016
    • Figure 2A.3: Average Herbicide Application Rate on US Corn and Soybeans from 1995-2016
  • 2B: Routes of Exposure
  • 2C: Biomonitoring Data
    • Figure 2C.1:  Percent of Urine Samples Positive for Glyphosate in 100 Rancho Bernardo Residents,
    • Figure 2C.2: Percent Positive and Mean Residue Value for Glyphosate and AMPA in US Soybeans, 2011
    • Figure 2C.3: Trend in Mean Glyphosate Levels in 100 Rancho Bernardo Residents, 1993-2016
    • Figure 2C.4: Trend in Mean AMPA Levels in 100 Rancho Bernardo Residents, 1993-2016
  • 2D: Herbicide Health Impacts
    • Figure 2D.1: Percent of Birth Defects Identified in the First Year and at 3+ Years of Age
  • 2E: Ability to Detect Adverse Birth Outcomes

Section 3: Herbicide Use

Table 3.1: Bt Cry Protein Synthesis in Major GE Corn Cultivar Compared to the Weight of  Insecticides Displaced in Control of European Corn Borers (ECB) and Rootworms

  • 3A: Resistant Weeds
    • Figure 3A.1: US Area Infested with Glyphosate Resistant Weeds
    • Figure 3A.2:  Mapping the Spread of Glyphosate Resistant Weeds in Minnesota and North Dakota
  • 3B: Next Gen GE-HR Crops
    • Figure 3B.1: Approval Dates and Trends for Dicamba and 2,4-D
    • Table 3B.1: Projected Increase in Dicamba Use on Xtend HR Soybeans Based on Monsanto’s Projection of Acres Planted and Average Rates of Application per Crop Year
    • Table 3B.2: Projected Increase in 2,4-D Use on 2,4-D HR Corn Based on Projections by Dow AgroSciences of Acres Planted and Average Rates of Application per Crop Year
    • Table 3B.3: Projected Increase in 2,4-D Use on 2,4-D Resistant Soybeans Based on Projections by Dow AgroSciences of Acres Planted and Average Rates of Application per Crop Year
  • 3C: Access Herbicide Use Data (all tables below available for National and IN, IA, MI, MN, NE, OH, WI)
    • Table 3C.1: 2,4-D on Corn 1971-2016
    • Table 3C.2: 2,4-D on Soybeans 1971-2016
    • Table 3C.3: Dicamba on Soybeans 1971-2016 (only National)
    • Table 3C.4: Glyphosate Use on Corn 1982-2016
    • Table 3C.5: Glyphosate Use on Soybeans 1982-2016
    • Table 3C.6: Atrazine Use on Corn 1982-2016
    • Table 3C.7: Acetochlor Use on Corn 1994-2016
    • Table 3C.8: 5-metolachlor Use on Corn 2000-2015
  • 3D:  Key Indicators
    • Table 3D.1: Pesticide Use on Soybeans in 2015: Total Iowa Acres Planted
    • Table 3D.2: Measures of Reliance on Low-Dose Rate vs. High-Dose Rate Pesticides for Ohio Corn in 2015
      Table 3D.3: Overall H/I/F/O use on soybeans in Wisconsin in 2015
    • Table 3D.4: Average acre-treatments per acre for H/I/F/O pesticides applied on soybeans in Indiana
    • Table 3D.5: Weighted-Average Rate of Application per Acre Treatment for Each Type of Pesticide in Iowa Soybeans Over Time
    • Table 3D.6:  Average number of AI applied per acre in corn in Ohio Section
  • 3E:  Trends
    • Table 3E.1: Herbicide Use on Corn 1971-2015
    • Table 3E.2: Herbicide Use on Soybeans 1971-2015
    • Table 3E.3: Herbicide Use on Corn 1971-2015
    • Table 3E.4: Herbicide Use on Soybeans 1971-2015

Section 4: How to Reduce Risks

Section 5: Resources