Glufosinate

Laugeray et al., 2014

Anthony Laugeray, Ameziane Herzine, Olivier Perche,1,2 Betty Hébert, Marine Aguillon-Naury, Olivier Richard, Arnaud Menuet, Séverine Mazaud-Guittot, Laurianne Lesné, Sylvain Briault, Bernard Jegou, Jacques Pichon, Céline Montécot-Dubourg, and Stéphane Mortaud, “Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Low Dose Glufosinate Ammonium Induces Autism-Like Phenotypes in Mice,” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2014, 8:390, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00390

ABSTRACT:

Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. As is the case for most pesticides, potential adverse effects of GLA have not been studied from the perspective of developmental neurotoxicity. Early pesticides exposure may weaken the basic structure of the developing brain and cause permanent changes leading to a wide range of lifelong effects on health and/or behavior. Here, we addressed the developmental impact of GLA by exposing female mice to low dose GLA during both pre- and postnatal periods and analyzed potential developmental and behavioral changes of the offspring during infancy and adulthood. A neurobehavioral test battery revealed significant effects of GLA maternal exposure on early reflex development, pup communication, affiliative behaviors, and preference for social olfactory cues, but emotional reactivity and emotional memory remained unaltered. These behavioral alterations showed a striking resemblance to changes seen in animal models of Autistic Spectrum Disorders. At the brain level, GLA maternal exposure caused some increase in relative brain weight of the offspring. In addition, reduced expression of Pten and Peg3 – two genes implicated in autism-like deficits – was observed in the brain of GLA-exposed pups at postnatal day 15. Our work thus provides new data on the link between pre- and postnatal exposure to the herbicide GLA and the onset of autism-like symptoms later in life. It also raises fundamental concerns about the ability of current safety testing to assess risks of pesticide exposure during critical developmental periods.  FULL TEXT

Tsao et al., 2016

Yun-Chen Tsao, Yung-Chun Lai, Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Ray H. Liu, and Dong-Liang Lin, “Simultaneous Determination and Quantitation of Paraquat, Diquat, Glufosinate and Glyphosate,in Postmortem Blood and Urine by LC–MS-MS,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 40, 2016, DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkw042

ABSTRACT:

A simple method, incorporating protein-precipitation/organic backwashing and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS), has been successfully developed for the simultaneous analysis of four highly water-soluble and less volatile herbicides (paraquat, diquat, glufosinate and glyphosate) in ante- and postmortem blood, urine and gastric content samples. Respective isotopically labeled analogs of these analytes were adopted as internal standards.  Acetonitrile and dichloromethane were used for protein precipitation and organic solvent backwashing, respectively, followed by injecting the upper aqueous phase into the LC–MS-MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Agilent Zorbax SB-Aq analytical column, with gradient elution of 15 mM heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed under electrospray ionization in positive-ion multiple reaction
monitoring mode. The precursor ions and the two transition ions (m/z) adopted for each of these four analytes were paraquat (185; 169 and 115), diquat (183; 157 and 78), glufosinate (182; 136 and 119) and glyphosate (170; 88 and 60), respectively. Analyte-free blood and urine samples, fortified with the analytes of  interest, were used for method development/validation and yielded acceptable recoveries of the analytes; interday and intraday precision and accuracy data; calibration linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. This method was successfully incorporated into an overall analytical scheme, designed for the analysis of a broad range of compounds present in postmortem samples, helpful to medical examiners’ efforts to determine victims’ causes of death. FULL TEXT