Alvarez-Moya et al., 2014

Carlos Alvarez-Moya, Mónica Reynoso Silva, Carlos Valdez Ramírez, David Gómez Gallardo, Rafael León Sánchez, Alejandro Canales Aguirre, Alfredo Feria Velasco, “Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine salt in three different organisms,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2014, 37:1, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572014000100016


There is considerable controversy with regard to the genotoxicity of glyphosate, with some reports stating that this compound is non-toxic for fish, birds and mammals. In this work, we used the comet assay to examine the genotoxicity of glyphosate isopropylamine (0.7, 7, 70 and 700 µM) in human lymphocytes, erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus and staminal nuclei of Tradescantia (4430) in vitro and in vivo. Cells, nuclei and fish that had and had not been exposed to 5 mM N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Significant (p < 0.01) genetic damage was observed in vivo and in vitro in all cell types and organisms tested. Human lymphocytes and Tradescantia hairs showed lower genetic damage in vivo compared to in vitro, possibly because of efficient metabolization of the herbicide. In O. niloticus erythrocytes, significant (p < 0.001) genotoxicity was observed at > 7 µM, whereas in vitro, glyphosphate was genotoxic in human lymphocytes and Tradescantia hairs at > 0.7 µM. These results indicate that glyphosate is genotoxic in the cells and organisms studied at concentrations of 0.7-7 µM. FULL TEXT


Bolognesi et al., 1997

Claudia Bolognesi, Stefania Bonatti, Paolo Degan, Elena Gallerani, Marco Peluso, Roberta Rabboni, Paola Roggieri, and Angelo Abbondandolo, “Genotoxic Activity of Glyphosate and Its Technical Formulation Roundup,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 1997, DOI: 10.1021/jf9606518


Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) is an effective herbicide acting on the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants. The genotoxic potential of this herbicide has been studied:  the results available in the open literature reveal a weak activity of the technical formulation. In this study, the formulated commercial product, Roundup, and its active agent, glyphosate, were tested in the same battery of assays for the induction of DNA damage and chromosomal effects in vivoand in vitro. Swiss CD1 mice were treated intraperitoneally with test substances, and the DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline elution technique and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) quantification in liver and kidney. The chromosomal damage of the two pesticide preparations was also evaluated in vivo in bone marrow of mice as micronuclei frequency and in vitro in human lymphocyte culture as SCE frequency. A DNA-damaging activity as DNA single-strand breaks and 8-OHdG and a significant increase in chromosomal alterations were observed with both substances in vivo and in vitro. A weak increment of the genotoxic activity was evident using the technical formulation. FULL TEXT

Marouani et al., 2017

Neila Marouani, Olfa Tebourbi, Donia Cherif, Dorsaf Hallegue, Mohamed Tahar Yacoubi, Mohsen Sakly, Moncef Benkhalifa, Khemais Ben Rhouma, “Effects of oral administration of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, January 2017, Volume 24:1, DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7656-3.


The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used worldwide in agriculture as a selective herbicide. It has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects on the health of both animals and humans from embryotoxicity and teratogenicity to neurotoxicity. In the present study, we have examined the effect of 2,4-D on male reproductive function of rats. Male Wistar rats received daily by force-feeding 100 or 200 mg of 2,4-D/kg body weight for 30 consecutive days. Rats exposed to 100 and 200 mg of 2,4-D/kg showed a significant decrease in body weights only after 24 days of treatment and in relative weights of testis, seminal vesicles and prostate at killing day, when compared with controls. Moreover, a decrease in testosterone and an increase in FSH and LH serum levels were detected in treated rats. Besides, exposure to this herbicide induced pronounced testicular histological alterations with enlarged intracellular spaces, tissue loosening and dramatic loss of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. In addition, a decreased motility and a number of epididymal spermatozoa with an increased sperm abnormality rate were found in treated rats in comparison with control. With the highest dose, histological observations of seminal vesicles indicated a considerable decrease of secretions in the lumen, a thinness of the muscle layer surrounding the epithelium with branched mucosal crypts and reduced luminal space. In prostate, the heights of the cells decreased while acinar lumen were enlarged and they lost the typical invaginations. Our results suggest that a subacute treatment of 2,4-D promotes reproductive system toxicity.

Paz-y-Miño et al., 2007

César Paz-y-Miño, María Eugenia Sánchez,  Melissa Arévalo,  María José Muñoz, Tania Witte, Gabriela Oleas De-la-Carrera,  Paola E. LeoneI, “Evaluation of DNA damage in an Ecuadorian population exposed to glyphosate,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2007, 30:2, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572007000300026


We analyzed the consequences of aerial spraying with glyphosate added to a surfactant solution in the northern part of Ecuador. A total of 24 exposed and 21 unexposed control individuals were investigated using the comet assay. The results showed a higher degree of DNA damage in the exposed group (comet length = 35.5 µm) compared to the control group (comet length = 25.94 µm). These results suggest that in the formulation used during aerial spraying glyphosate had a genotoxic effect on the exposed individuals. FULL TEXT