24 D

Band et al., 2011

Band PR, Abanto Z, Bert J, Lang B, Fang R, Gallagher RP, Le ND., “Prostate cancer risk and exposure to pesticides in British Columbia farmers,” Prostate, 2011, 71:2, DOI: 10.1002/pros.21232.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Several epidemiologic studies have reported an increased risk of prostate cancer among farmers. Our aim was to assess the risk of developing prostate cancer in relation to exposure to specific active compounds in pesticides.

METHOD: A case-control approach was used with 1,516 prostate cancer patients and 4,994 age-matched internal controls consisting of all other cancer sites excluding lung cancer and cancers of unknown primary site. Lifetime occupational history was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire and used in conjunction with a job exposure matrix to estimate the participants’ lifetime cumulative exposure to approximately 180 active compounds in pesticides. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess prostate cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounding variables and effect modifiers. These include age, ethnicity, alcohol consumption, smoking, education, and proxy respondent.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The significant association between prostate cancer risk and exposure to DDT (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04-2.70 for high exposure), simazine (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.08-3.33 for high exposure), and lindane (OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.15-3.55 for high exposure) is in keeping with those previously reported in the literature. We also observed a significant excess risk for several active ingredients that have not been previously reported in the literature such as dichlone, dinoseb amine, malathion, endosulfan, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, and carbaryl. Some findings in our study were not consistent with those reported in the literature, including captan, dicamba, and diazinon. It is possible that these findings showed a real association and the inconsistencies reflected differences of characteristics between study populations.

Benbrook, 2012

Benbrook, C, “Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops on Pesticide Use in the U.S. – the First Sixteen Years,” Environmental Sciences-Europe, 2012, 24:24.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Genetically engineered, herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant crops have been remarkable commercial successes in the United States. Few independent studies have calculated their impacts on pesticide use per hectare or overall pesticide use, or taken into account the impact of rapidly spreading glyphosate-resistant weeds. A model was developed to quantify by crop and year the impacts of six major transgenic pest-management traits on pesticide use in the U.S. over the 16-year period, 1996–2011: herbicide-resistant corn, soybeans, and cotton; Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn targeting the European corn borer; Bt corn for corn rootworms; and Bt cotton for Lepidopteron insects.

RESULTS: Herbicide-resistant crop technology has led to a 239 million kilogram (527 million pound) increase in herbicide use in the United States between 1996 and 2011, while Bt crops have reduced insecticide applications by 56 million kilograms (123 million pounds). Overall, pesticide use increased by an estimated 183 million kgs (404 million pounds), or about 7%.

CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to often-repeated claims that today’s genetically-engineered crops have, and are reducing pesticide use, the spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds in herbicide-resistant weed management systems has brought about substantial increases in the number and volume of herbicides applied. If new genetically engineered forms of corn and soybeans tolerant of 2,4-D are approved, the volume of 2,4-D sprayed could drive herbicide usage upward by another approximate 50%. The magnitude of increases in herbicide use on herbicide-resistant hectares has dwarfed the reduction in insecticide use on Bt crops over the past 16 years, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. FULL TEXT

Center for Food Safety, 2012

Center for Food Safety, “Exposure to Herbicide Residues and Herbicide-Resistant Crops,” November 2012.

ABSTRACT:

Not Available

FULL TEXT

Erickson and Bomgardner, 2015

Britt E. Erickson, Melody M. Bomgardner, “Resistant weeds, fears of health effects drive market for alternatives to widely used herbicide,” Chemical and Engineering News, 2015, 93:37.

ABSTRACT:

Not Available

FULL TEXT

Hill et al., 1995

Hill RH Jr, Head SL, Baker S, Gregg M, Shealy DB, Bailey SL, Williams CC, Sampson EJ, Needham LL, “Pesticide Residues of Adults Living in the United States: Reference Range Concentrations,”  Environmental Research, 1995, 71:2, DOI: 10.1006/ENRS.1995.1071.

ABSTRACT:

We measured 12 analytes in urine of 1000 adults living in the United States to establish reference range concentrations for pesticide residues. We frequently found six of these analytes: 2,5-dichlorophenol (in 98% of adults); 2,4-dichlorophenol (in 64%); 1-naphthol (in 86%); 2-naphthol (in 81%); 3,5,6- trichloro-2-pyridinol (in 82%); and pentachlorophenol (in 64%). The 95th percentile concentration (95th PC) for 2,5-dichlorophenol (indicative of p-dichlorobenzene exposure) was 790 micrograms/liter; concentrations ranged up to 8700 micrograms/liter. 2,4-Dichlorophenol concentrations ranged up to 450 micrograms/ liter, and the 95thPC was 64 micrograms/liter. 1-Naphthol and 2-naphthol (indicative of naphthalene exposure) had 95thPCs of 43 and 30 micrograms/liter, respectively; concentrations of 1-naphthol ranged up to 2500 micrograms/liter. Chlorpyrifos exposure was indicated by 3,5,6-tricholoro-2-pyridinol concentrations of 13 (95thPC) and 77 micrograms/liter (maximum observed). Pentachlorophenol had a 95thPC of 8.2 micrograms/liter. Other analytes measured included 4-nitrophenol (in 41%); 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (in 20%); 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (in 9.5%); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (in 12%); 2-isopropoxyphenol (in 6.8%); and 7-carbofuranphenol (in 1.5%). The 95thPCs of these analytes were < 6 micrograms/liter. p-Dichlorobenzene exposure is ubiquitous; naphthalene and chlorpyrifos are also major sources of pesticide exposure. Exposure to chlorpyrifos appears to be increasing. Although pentachlorophenol exposure is frequent, exposure appears to be decreasing. These reference range concentrations provide information about pesticide exposure and serve as a basis against which to compare concentrations in subjects who may have been exposed to pesticides.  FULL TEXT

Islam et al., 2018

Faisal Islam, Jian Wang, Muhammad A. Farooq, Muhammad S.S. Khan, Ling Xu, Jinwen Zhu, Min Zhao, Stéphane Muños, Qing X. Li, Weijun Zhou, “Potential impact of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on human and ecosystems,” Environment International, 2018, 111, DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.10.020.

ABSRACT: The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is applied directly to aquatic and conventional farming systems to control weeds, and is among the most widely distributed pollutants in the environment. Non-target organisms are exposed to 2,4-D via several ways, which could produce toxic effects depending on the dose, frequency of exposure, and the host factors that influence susceptibility and sensitivity. An increasing number of experimental evidences have shown concerns about its presence/detection in the environment, because several investigations have pointed out its potential lethal effects on non-target organisms. In this review, we critically evaluated the environmental fate and behavior of 2,4-D along with its eco-toxicological effects on aquatic, plants and human life to provide concise assessment in the light of recently published reports. The findings demonstrate that 2,4-D is present in a low concentration in surface water of regions where its usage is high. The highest concentrations of 2,4-D were detected in soil, air and surface water surrounded by crop fields, which suggest that mitigation strategies must be implanted locally to prevent the entry of 2,4-D into the environment. A general public may have frequent exposure to 2,4-D due to its wide applications at home lawns and public parks, etc. Various in vivo and in vitro investigations suggest that several species (or their organs) at different trophic levels are extremely sensitive to the 2,4-D exposure, which may explain variation in outcomes of reported investigations. However, implications for the prenatal exposure to 2,4-D remain unknown because 2,4-D-induced toxicity thresholds in organism have only been derived from juveniles or adults. In near future, introduction of 2,4-D resistant crops will increase its use in agriculture, which may cause relatively high and potentially unsafe residue levels in the environment. The recent findings indicate the urgent need to further explore fate, accumulation and its continuous low level exposure impacts on the environment to generate reliable database which is key in drafting new regulation and policies to protect the population from further exposure.

Landrigan and Benbrook, 2015

Phillip Landrigan and Charles Benbrook, “GMOs, Herbicides, and Public Health,” Commentary in New England Journal of Medicine, 2015, 373:8, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1505660.

ABSTRACT:

Not Available

FULL TEXT

Lerro et al., 2017

Lerro CC, Beane Freeman LE, Portengen L, Kang D, Lee K, Blair A, Lynch CF, Bakke B, De Roos AJ, Vermeulen RC, “A longitudinal study of atrazine and 2,4-D exposure and oxidative stress markers among Iowa corn farmers,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 2017, 58:1, DOI: 10.1002/em.22069.

ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species, potentially formed through environmental exposures, can overwhelm an organism’s antioxidant capabilities resulting in oxidative stress. Long-term oxidative stress is linked with chronic diseases. Pesticide exposures have been shown to cause oxidative stress in vivo. We utilized a longitudinal study of corn farmers and non-farming controls in Iowa to examine the impact of exposure to the widely used herbicides atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on markers of oxidative stress. 225 urine samples were collected during five agricultural time periods (pre-planting, planting, growing, harvest, off-season) for 30 farmers who applied pesticides occupationally and 10 controls who did not; all were non-smoking men ages 40-60. Atrazine mercapturate (atrazine metabolite), 2,4-D, and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], and 8-isoprostaglandin-F [8-isoPGF]) were measured in urine. We calculated β estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for each pesticide-oxidative stress marker combination using multivariate linear mixed-effect models for repeated measures. Farmers had higher urinary atrazine mercapturate and 2,4-D levels compared with controls. In regression models, after natural log transformation, 2,4-D was associated with elevated levels of 8-OHdG (β = 0.066, 95%CI = 0.008-0.124) and 8-isoPGF (β = 0.088, 95%CI = 0.004-0.172). 2,4-D may be associated with oxidative stress because of modest increases in 8-OHdG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and 8-isoPGF, a product of lipoprotein peroxidation, with recent 2,4-D exposure. Future studies should investigate the role of 2,4-D-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of human diseases.

Lerro et al., 2017

Catherine C. Lerro, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Lützen Portengen, Daehee Kang, Kyoungho Lee, Aaron Blair, Charles F. Lynch, Berit Bakke, Anneclaire J. De Roos, and Roel C.H. Vermeulen, “A longitudinal study of atrazine and 2,4-D exposure and oxidative stress markers among Iowa corn farmers,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 2017, 58, DOI: 10.1002/em.22069

ABSTRACT:

Reactive oxygen species, potentially formed through environmental exposures, can overwhelm an organism’s antioxidant capabilities resulting in oxidative stress. Long-term oxidative stress is linked with chronic diseases. Pesticide exposures have been shown to cause oxidative stress in vivo. We utilized a longitudinal study of corn farmers and non-farming controls in Iowa to examine the impact of exposure to the widely used herbicides atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on markers of oxidative stress. 225 urine samples were collected during five agricultural time periods (pre-planting, planting, growing, harvest, off-season) for 30 farmers who applied pesticides occupationally and 10 controls who did not; all were non-smoking men ages 40–60. Atrazine mercapturate (atrazine metabolite), 2,4-D, and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], and 8-isoprostaglandin-F [8-isoPGF]) were measured in urine. We calculated β estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for each pesticide-oxidative stress marker combination using multivariate linear mixed-effect models for repeated measures. Farmers had higher urinary atrazine mercapturate and 2,4-D levels compared to controls. In regression models, after natural log transformation, 2,4-D was associated with elevated levels of 8-OHdG (β=0.066, 95%CI=0.008–0.124) and 8-isoPGF (β=0.088, 95%CI=0.004–0.172). 2,4-D may be associated with oxidative stress because of modest increases in 8-OHdG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and 8-isoPGF, a product of lipoprotein peroxidation, with recent 2,4-D exposure. Future studies should investigate the role of 2,4-D-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of human diseases.  FULL TEXT

Loomis et al., 2015

Dana Loomis, Kathryn Guyton, Yann Grosse, Fatiha El Ghissassi, Véronique Bouvard, Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa, Neela Guha, Heidi Mattock, Kurt Straif, “Carcinogenicity of lindane, DDT, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid,” The Lancet, 2015, 16, DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00081-9.

SUMMARY:

Summarizes the findings of 26 experts from 13 countries who met at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Lyon, France) to assess the carcinogenicity of the insecticides lindane and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for IARC Monographs Volume 113.  2,4-D was classified as “possibly carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2B) after some studies showed links to cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.  FULL TEXT