Garry et al., 2002a

Garry VF, Harkins M, Lyubimov A, Erickson L, Long L., “Reproductive outcomes in the women of the Red River Valley of the north. I. The spouses of pesticide applicators: pregnancy loss, age at menarche, and exposures to pesticides,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health – Part A, 2002, 65:11.

ABSTRACT: In the current study, there was a modest but significant increase in risk (1.6- to 2-fold) for miscarriages and/or fetal loss occurring throughout the year in the spouses of applicators who use fungicides. There is a surprisingly significant deficit in the number of male children born to the spouses of fungicide applicators. First-trimester miscarriages occur most frequently in the spring, during the time when herbicides are applied. Use of sulfonylurea (odds ratio OR = 2.1), imidizolinone (OR = 2.6) containing herbicides, and the herbicide combination Cheyenne (OR = 2.9) by male applicators was statistically associated with increased miscarriage risk in the spring. Limited survey data from women who are the spouses of applicators did not show major alterations of long-term endocrinologic status (menarche, menopause, endometriosis). With regard to personal pesticide exposures, only women who engaged in pesticide application where there is direct exposure to these products are at demonstrable risk (OR = 1.8) for miscarriage. It was hypothesized that the overall reproductive toxicity observed in this population is, for the greater part, a male-mediated event. Clarification of exposure events leading to reproductive toxicity through direct measurements of exposure in both men and women is needed to resolve this issue.